I would like to know if the newer models of the ThinkPad T500 series (i.e. T530) can accept the keyboard from a Thinkpad T510? I currently own a T510, and if I were to buy a new Thinkpad, I would want to know that I could swap their keyboards and continue using my current one in the new laptop.
No, it is not possible. You could swap the T510 keyboard into T530, but the keys are mapped incorrectly. The keyboard taken from T510 cannot be remapped in T530 as the BIOS won't recognise all the keys on the older 7 row keyboard which T510 is using.
In short, you can not use the old keyboard (with 7 rows of keys) with the newer ThinkPads.
The T500 can not use a newer generation keyboard. You can, however, use older T60,T61,W500 keyboards for T500.
The T510 can use a T510 or T520 keyboard.
Thus, I would recommend you a T520 with the classic keyboard instead.